Tag Archives: education

It’s time for Curriculum Review

Here in Australia, we decided to review a curriculum that was still in the hatchling stages of utilisation, but act like it had been brainwashing students for the past millenia. Over at The Conversation, they’ve asked a variety of academics to review the review. It’s worth a look.


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Schooling changes on the Lands

I’m not really prepared to write a blog post on this, but seeing as it’s now hit the press, it’s worth putting up. In terms of APY press coverage, this is likely to get quite a bit I’d imagined.

The Australian published this article today re: proposed changes to school terms. The SA government is proposing that for the APY Lands, schooling will be conducted over 48 weeks.

ABC online also published an article today on the proposed changes.

The Paper Tracker radio show conducted an interview with Peter Chislett, the government consultant for the change.

They’ve also conducted an interview with Makinti Minutjukur and Katrina Tjitayi – prominent members of the Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Education Committee.


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Ex-Principal interviewed re: Lands

I’m trying to get my act together and blog more regularly. But it’s hard, ok? And a lot of thought has to go into what’s said.

That’s why this link is interesting. Very rarely do people hear an inside experience of where I live and work – especially one that so candidly states some of the challenges.

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April 22, 2013 · 4:05 pm

Learning Pitjantjatjara – the Final Day

It was the final day of the intensive course today, which was a little sad. We’d all bonded well over two weeks and 80 plus hours of Pitjantjatjara learning. I hope that once I’m back on the Pit Lands, we will get a class up and going and that I’ll be brave enough to broker detailed conversations with some of my colleagues in Pit.

I was pretty impressed with the accuracy of some of the guesses in the comments of the last post. They all seemed well-educated considering the sounds of Pitjantjatjara would be foreign to most readers. So here’s the answers:

  • tangkiyi (an animal) – donkey
  • patjikala (a vehicle) – bicycle
  • tarawatja (an item of clothing) – trousers
  • pulitjamunu (an occupation) – policeman
  • tiritja (an item of clothing) – dress
  • pitikuta (an item of clothing) – skirt
  • wayatjara (a cooking implement) – billy (metal pot for boiling water)
  • raipula (a hunting implement) – rifle
  • mutuka (a vehicle) – car
  • paatja (a vehicle) – bus
  • tjiya (an object) – chair
  • taipula (an object) – table
  • kapamanta (a very, very large organisation or employee of said organisation) – government/government employee

One last anecdote before my journey back to the Pit Lands begins:

When translating languages, confusion from mistranslation almost always ensues. Anangu must have had some difficulties with the idea that the missionaries’ God promised them everlasting caterpillars through Jesus Christ.

All it took was an omission of an    . There are three very similar words which non-Indigenous people (particularly English speakers) find difficult to tell the difference between when hearing, and

wanka – life, alive, raw etc

wangka – to speak/talk

wanka – caterpillar, spider, spiderweb


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Learning Pitjantjatjara #3

Staying in Adelaide is always a hectic time for me. I haven’t lived in this city for almost six years, but still spend a lot of time running around trying to maintain old friendships. It makes it an exhausting end to the school holidays when coupled with learning new languages.

Sometimes I wonder if any of it will sink in?

One thing that has always fascinated me about different languages is how we adopt words to suit our language needs. English is one of the masters of this taking words from wherever we find them and anglicising them. Karaoke, hors d’ouevre, pasta – to name a few… not to mention the thousands of words adopted over the centuries through invasion and interaction with different European nationalities.

Castellano Spanish always impressed me with its absolute refusal to adopt English words. Ordenador for computer; portatìl for laptop.

Pronouncing words from a foreign language is always difficult. Take this Japanese game show, for example, where contestants must not laugh at incorrect pronunciations.

But in terms of being a skilled word borrower, Pitjantjatjara might just take the cake.

First contact between Anangu and non-Indigenous peoples occurred within the last 200 years and at a rapidly increasing rate only in the last 80 odd years. With that contact came an array of objects and concepts that had never existed before within Anangu culture, all of which required new words for expression.

One example of this we learnt last week. In a dialogue we have to learn, we ask “Kan iruwa-ku mukuringanyi?” which translates to “do you want tea?” A tutor told us that while writing this dialogue the word iruwa came up and she had no idea where it came from. (It’s now fallen out of use – replaced by the word ‘ti’). Anangu didn’t have a word for tea – not having any prior to contact, but iruwa is clearly not taken from English.

It turns out they did borrow it, though, from the Arrernte people who live around Alice Springs. Did tea beat European exploration in reaching Western Desert nations? Quite possibly.

Obviously, a large amount of borrowed words in Pitjantjatjara come from English. These tend to be quite confusing for non-native speakers who don’t expect to hear their language sounded back at them.

See if you can work out what these words might be (a clue in brackets):

  • tangkiyi (an animal)
  • patjikala (a vehicle)
  • tarawatja (an item of clothing)
  • pulitjamunu (an occupation)
  • tiritja (an item of clothing)
  • pitikuta (an item of clothing)
  • wayatjara (a cooking implement)
  • raipula (a hunting implement)
  • mutuka (a vehicle)
  • paatja (a vehicle)
  • tjiya (an object)
  • taipula (an object)
  • kapamanta (a very, very large organisation or employee of said organisation)

Here’s some translations that may or may not help you.

Kurukalatja is the Pit word for glasses coming from the word kuru (eye) and kalatja sounding like glasses. Kapati is the word for recess (short break) in schools coming from cup of tea. Tuyuta is the word for 4WD coming from Toyota. Any make of 4WD can be called a tuyuta.

Leave a comment with your guesses and I’ll put the correct translations up tomorrow.



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Learning Pitjantjatjara – Day One

Isn’t it lovely to be back in sunny Adelaide during the height of summer (41˚C) spending my hard-earned school holidays in a university tutorial room learning language?


I pulled myself out of the comfortable, post-school/Christmas/New Years laze yesterday and drove the 726km from Melbourne to Adelaide to begin my two-week intensive Pitjantjatjara language programme. The intention over the next two weeks is to blog a little about what I’m discovering in Pit (but no promises, hey).

Note: There may be opinions, ideas or understandings that I get backwards. Don’t hold them against me. As one of my students would say “You don’t know. You still learning.” If you do know better, feel free to enlighten me. Please.

Day One of a language course is always interesting. Not much is ever covered but you get a grasp for the style of the teachers, the abilities of your colleagues and some of what may lay ahead. I recall fondly my first Spanish language class in Madrid with my knowledge of Español being ‘Hola, no hablo Español.’

We were a class of 12 or so beginners from all over the world – a couple of Australians, some Germans, Americans, Chinese, Japanese and a handful of other nationalities. We were all beginners and English was our lingua franca. The teacher, who I visualise perfectly but have no idea of the name, entered the room and began:

Hola. Buenos dias, estudiantes. ¿Como estan ustedes? ¿Estamos aqui para aprender Español, no? ¿Si? Bueno, vamos a empezar…

Needless to say, we had not a clue of what was going on. It took at least a week to even get my head around the words.

My experience of language learning in Australia is not quite the same as it was in Spain. There is a total lack of immersion in the language being learnt and we clearly experience discomfort when put into situations where we might be immersed. But today, I was pleasantly surprised at how the leading teacher was trying to challenge us to immerse. There was little discussion of grammar, plenty of listening to Pitjantjatjara spoken by native speakers, lots of repetition and bite-size chunks of language being thrown around. But we were guided through all of this in the safe hands of English.

Quite a lot of the language we learnt today, I’d picked up in 12 months in community. But there were new aspects I uncovered and awakenings to concepts I was previously confused by. Here’s a few tidbits of new knowledge:

    1. Pitjantjatjara – literally means “having the word “pitja”. Other languages that relate to it like Yankunytjatjara similarly translate to “having the word “ya”. “Pitja” would translate to go, move, come or some other similar word (I haven’t checked my dictionary – it’s three feet away).
    2. I’ve been using the wrong form of the imperative. I keep telling just one student to listen, to sit down, to stand up. See, kulila is the imperative for listen. But if you’re talking to more than one person, kulilaya is the correct form. Likewise, nyinakati (sit down) should be nyinakatiya and wangka (speak) should be wangkaya if talking to multiple people.
    3. I’ve struggled to understand the familial relationships in Anangu culture for much of the past year. Little by little, aspects have become clearer, but everyone seemed to be tjamu, akala, or kami. What I learnt today, though, was eyeopening. So here’s my best attempt at explaining it.

      In my family, there’s me and my younger sister. She’s my younger sister so she’s my malanypa (sibling). Then we have my mama (father) and my ngunytju (mother).

      On my father’s side, he has two brothers, both younger than him. They are both my mama (father). My uncle’s wife is my ngunytju (mother) and his daughter is my malanypa (sibling).

      On my mother’s side, she has an older brother, and a younger brother and deceased younger sister. Her sister is my ngunytju (mother) and her husband my mama (father). Her son is my malanypa (sibling). My mother’s older brother, though, is my akala or kamuru kulypalpa (uncle) and his wife my kuntili (aunty). Their two children are not my malanypa. Rather, their daughter is my kangkuru (‘elder’ sister) and their son my kuta (‘elder’ brother), although both are younger than me in age. My mother’s other brother (younger) is also my kamuru kulypalpa  or akala, and his wife my kuntili, but their children are both my malanypa. My grandfathers are both my tjamu and my grandmother is my kami.

      I am kuta to my sister and my cousins from my parents’ younger brothers and sisters. I am also tjamu to my grandfather. As I watched this picture unfold, the circular, hierarchical nature of Anangu families became clearer and made sense. I could see how generational responsibility was evident in a person’s familial position. A tjamu (old) is both responsible for the teaching of his tjamu (young) and vice-versa the caring of the older as he gets older. Hierarchy within a family made more sense and the use of words in English such as ‘little uncle’ became clearer. Not 100% clearer as I am unable to adequately explain it, but more logical to me.

      Note: If you do know better, let me know.

    4. I learnt Freres Jacques in Pitjantjatjara. It goes:
      Mama yaaltji, mama yaaltji?
      Nyangatja! Nyangatja!
      Nyuntu palya nyinanyi?
      Uwa, palya ngayulu.
      Ma-pitja. Ma-pitja.Where is Dad? Where is Dad?
      Here I am. Here I am.
      Are you well? Yes, I’m well.
      Off he goes. Off he goes.
    5. Finally, I learnt a bunch of descriptive language. One of these was Kulpi nyaratja ngaranyi. The cave is over there.

I’m looking forward to tomorrow. It was great to see some of my Anangu colleages and professional colleagues outside of community and the constraints of work.

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The cusp of 2013

I’m looking forward to a couple of major activities beginning in the early part of the year. In a week, I head to Adelaide to begin a Pitjantjatjara language course offered through the David Unaipon institute at UniSA. As a two week intensive, I’m really hoping it will give me the foundational knowledge to be able to develop my language abilities better on the ground. I strongly believe that being able to operate bilingually is highly advantageous. Through embracing language, not only do I better recognise and understand the culture within which I’m working, but I also gain a stronger understanding of challenges students face linguistically in translating ideas and communicating effectively.

Having lived within Spanish culture for a number of years, I discovered that as my own language skills progressed, so too did my understanding of Spanish people and their idiosyncracies. As an ESL teacher, I was better able to recognise linguistic faults that were being made through direct translation and to assist students to correct them.

I’m also looking forward to seeing some good friends from the community who are working as tutors on the program. It’ll be great to see them outside of our living and working environs.

Later in 2013, I begin a Master of Indigenous Education through Macquarie University. I’m hopeful that it will be a worthwhile programme – as it’s been particularly designed with remote educators and other workers in mind. There are some fascinating topics around education policy and practice historically that I can’t wait to get my teeth into and some great comparative studies of international practice. It seems really relevant to my situation, and I hope it pans out that way.

Check out the course’s youtube propaganda below:

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